Subscribe To Updates

White Papers


Horizen invests in the continued R&D of blockchain technology.

Horizen strives to push technological boundaries and bring new products and services to those who need them most.

Horizen’s culture is research-driven, and we believe in the development of open source technology. Our R&D and Engineering teams are building an open, permissionless and multipurpose blockchain platform that will help make the world a better place.

Below is our original whitepaper along with our updated Application Platform paper and our project-specific contributions to the Distributed Ledger Technology industry.

Latus Incentive Scheme: Enabling Decentralization in Blockchains based on Recursive SNARKs

Release date: March 2021
This paper details the incentive scheme of the latus-enabled sidechain first introduced in the Zendoo white paper. This reward scheme is an essential element for a fully decentralized system and allows the creation of a balanced mechanism of reward distribution. The scheme also promotes stable system operation and honest participation. The ideas described in the paper can also be adopted by other SNARK-based blockchains to incentivize proof creation.
Read More

Zendoo: A zk-SNARK Verifiable Cross-Chain Transfer Protocol Enabling Decoupled and Decentralized Sidechains

Release date: Jan 2020
Sidechains are an appealing innovation for enhancing existing blockchain systems. It enables blockchain scalability and extensibility. We believe that the value of sidechains is underestimated, and we seek to develop this area. This paper introduces Zendoo, a universal construction for Bitcoin-like blockchain systems. The paper also provides a specific sidechain construction, Latus, that leverages zk-SNARK techniques to establish decentralized and verifiable cross-chain transfers. Both constructions enable the creation and communication with different sidechains without knowing their internal structure.
Read More

Horizen: A Blockchain Platform for Fully Customizable Decentralized Applications

Release date: Oct 2019
Horizen is a distributed blockchain platform enabling truly decentralized applications. The system is composed of the main Horizen blockchain and its well established tradable ZEN token, a core protocol that behaves as a simple ”truth engine”, and decoupled sidechains that are fully generalizable in consensus and any other design characteristics.
Read More

Horizen Application Platform:
A Multi-tiered Node System

Release date: April 2018
The Horizen Secure Node system is a unique compensated blockchain network with enhanced client-to-node and node-to-node encryption. The system was designed to rapidly and massively decentralize the blockchain network to provide unparalleled censorship resistance, net capacity and to lay the infrastructure for a high-performing privacy-oriented platform.
Read More

51% Attack Prevention:
A Solution to Modify Bitcoin’s Consensus

Release date: June 2018
The longest chain rule, or Satoshi Consensus, worked well in the relatively decentralized environment in which it was introduced in 2009. Mining technology has evolved over the years, thus making it financially feasible to launch 51% attacks on operational public blockchains networks. Horizen proposes a solution to modify the longest chain rule to make it financially infeasible to conduct such attacks while also allowing the network to dynamically adjust parameters.
Read More

Horizen Sidechain Model:
Decoupled Consensus Between Chains

Release date: Oct 2018
We propose a novel sidechain construction tailored to be compatible with the Horizen blockchain and designed for conducting secure and decentralized cross-chain transfers without requiring the mainchain nodes to track sidechains to verify them. The proposed scheme can also be adopted for other similar blockchain systems. We show that our cross-ledger transfer mechanism is secure under certain plausible assumptions.
Read More